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Introduction: Pain complaints and musculoskeletal problems are prevalent in musicians. These conditions have physical, cognitive, organizational, and body self-awareness issues as determining factors, which may arise already during university education. Objective: To investigate body self-awareness and its relationship with pain complaints in university music students. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 with 34 music students from a public university located in the south of the state of Ceará, Brazil. The Battery of Evaluation of Body Self-awareness and Ergonomic Health in Musicians was used, consisting of the scales: self-awareness (A), self-perception of pain (B) preventive aspects (C). A questionnaire with data on curricular musical performance was also applied. Descriptive analyzes and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. Results: There were pain complaints in 67.6% of the students and low expressiveness of body self-awareness in 50%. There were negative associations: body self-awareness and musculoskeletal problems (p=0.04); self-perception of pain and pain complaints after seven days (p=0.004) and post-performance pain (p=0.03); preventive aspects and pain in the last seven days (p=0.01). There were also positive associations: body self-awareness and the absence of musculoskeletal problems (p=0.004); preventive aspects and the performance of stretching in the routine of musical practice (p=0.04). There were no variables positively associated with self-perceived pain. Conclusion: The study contributed to important reflections about musculoskeletal complaints among students and highlighted aspects of instrumental practice that may assist in the development of preventive strategies that promote healthy habits in the university context, with an emphasis on body self-awareness.
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