Main aspects and prophylatic measures of COVID-19 in Brazil

Main Article Content

Iranildo do Amarante Fernandes
Isabela Madeira de Castro
Jhulya Zanfolin Andrade
Nathália Rebolho Turozi
Rafael da Silva Rosa
Victor Hugo Garcia de Oliveira
Suelen Navas Úbida
Rogéria Keller
Lizziane Kretli Winkelstroter
Valéria Cataneli Pereira

Abstract

From the first case of COVID-19 in Brazil, the country became the third in the world in number of cases and deaths. Despite the measures implemented by the government, the number of infected and killed by COVID-19 continues to increase and the country faces several other problems that include social and political aspects, making it difficult to contain the pandemic. The present study aimed to address the general characteristics of SARS-Cov-2, as well as to point out the main socio-epidemiological aspects in Brazil, and the treatment of COVID 19. A literature review was carried out to search for articles in PubMed, Scielo and Google databases. Scholar until October 6, 2020. Patients with COVID-19 may be asymptomatic, but among symptomatic patients the severity of the disease is related to age and pre-existing medical conditions. The lungs are the organs most affected by the virus and, for this reason, respiratory manifestations such as cough, shortness of breath, sputum production, sore throat and nasal congestion are the symptoms most associated with COVID-19 The transmission of SARS-COV-2 between humans occur mainly through respiratory droplets, but they can also occur through contact with contaminated surfaces. Vaccine tests were carried out approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). Brazil stands out in second world position, with five approved vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca, /CoronaVac (Sinovac), Janssen /Covishiel

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fernandes, I. do A., Castro, I. M. de, Andrade, J. Z., Turozi, N. R., Rosa, R. da S., Oliveira, V. H. G. de, Úbida, S. N., Keller, R., Winkelstroter, L. K., & Pereira, V. C. (2021). Main aspects and prophylatic measures of COVID-19 in Brazil. ABCS Health Sciences, 46, e021311. https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.2021069.2004
Section
Review Articles

References

1. Hussain A, Bhowmik B, Moreira NCV. COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;162:108142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108142

2. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/

3. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Coronavírus Brasil. Covid-19: Painel coronavirus. Available from: https://covid.saude.gov.br/

4. Ye ZW, Yuan S, Yuen KS, Fung SY, Chan CP, Jin DY. Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1686-97. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45472

5. Malaiyan J, Arumugam S, Mohan K, Radhakrishnan GG. An update on the origin of SARS-CoV-2: Despite closest identity, bat (RaTG13) and pangolin derived coronaviruses varied in the critical binding site and O-linked glycan residues. J Med Virol. 2021;93(1):499-505. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26261

6. Liu P, Jiang JZ, Wan XF, Hua Y, Li L, Zhou J, et al. Are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? PLoS Pathog. 2020;16(5):e1008421. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

7. Amaku M, Covas DT, Coutinho FAB, Azevedo Neto RS, Struchiner C, Wilder-Smith A, et al. Modelling the test, trace and quarantine strategy to control the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Infect Dis Model. 2021;6:46-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.11.004

8. Delatorre E, Mir D, Graf T, Bello G. Tracking the onset date of the community spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Western Countries. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2020;115:e200183. https://doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760200183

9. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7

10. Lai CC, Liu YH, Wang CY, Wang YH, Hsueh SC, Yen MY, et al. Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020;53(3):404-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

11. Dolhnikoff M, Duarte-Neto AN, Monteiro RAA, Silva LFF, Oliveira EP, Saldiva PHN, et al. Pathological evidence of pulmonary thrombotic phenomena in severe COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(6):1517-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.14844

12. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost. 2020;18(4):844-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.14768

13. Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, Siati DR, Horoi M, Le Bon SD, Rodriguez A, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;277(8):2251-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1

14. Baig AM, Khaleeq A, Ali U, Syeda H. Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host-Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020;11(7):995-8. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00122

15. Pachiega J, Afonso AJDS, Sinhorin GT, Alencar BT, Araújo MDSM, Longhi FG, et al. Chronic heart diseases as the most prevalent comorbidities among deaths by COVID-19 in Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e45. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202062045

16. Ge H, Wang X, Yuan X, Xiao G, Wang C, Deng T, et al. The epidemiology and clinical information about COVID-19. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;39(6):1011-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03874-z

17. Chate RC, Kaiser E, Nunes U, Bastos R, Passos D, Borges G, et al. Presentation of pulmonary infection on CT in COVID-19: initial experience in Brazil. J Bras Pneumol. 2020;46(2):e20200121. https://doi.org/10.36416/1806-3756/e20200121


18. Beeching NJ, Fletcher TE, Beadsworth MBJ. Covid-19: testing times. BMJ. 2020;369:m1403. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1403

19. Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, Molenkamp R, Meijer A, Chu DK, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(3):2000045. http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045

20. Martino F, Amici G, Grandesso S, Mortellaro RF, Lo Cicero A, Novara G. Analysis of the Clinical and Epidemiological Meaning of Screening Test for SARS-CoV-2: Considerations in the Chronic Kidney Disease Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Clin Med. 2021;10(5):1139. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051139

21. Hong KH, Lee SW, Kim TS, Huh HJ, Lee J, Kim SY, et al. Guidelines for Laboratory Diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea. Ann Lab Med. 2020;40(5):351-60. https://doi.org/ 10.3343/alm.2020.40.5.351

22. Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, Tan YY, Chen SD, Jin HJ, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status. Mil Med Res. 2020;7(1):11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

23. Fiorillo L, Cervino G, Matarese M, D'Amico C, Surace G, Paduano V, et al. COVID-19 Surface Persistence: A Recent Data Summary and Its Importance for Medical and Dental Settings. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093132

24. Bivins A, North D, Ahmad A, Ahmed W, Alm E, Been F et al. Wastewater-Based Epidemiology: Global Collaborative to Maximize Contributions in the Fight Against COVID-19. Environ Sci Technol. 2020;54(13):7754-7. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02388

25. Gormley M, Aspray TJ, Kelly DA. COVID-19: mitigating transmission via wastewater plumbing systems. Lancet Glob Health. 2020;8(5):e643. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30112-1

26. Prata DN, Rodrigues W, Bermejo PH. Temperature significantly changes COVID-19 transmission in (sub)tropical cities of Brazil. Sci Total Environ. 2020;729:138862. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138862

27. Marson FAL, Ortega MM. COVID-19 in Brazil. Pulmonology. 2020;26(4):241-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.04.008

28. Palamim CVC, Marson FAL. COVID-19 - The Availability of ICU Beds in Brazil during the Onset of Pandemic. Ann Glob Health. 2020;86(1):100. https://doi.org/10.5334/aogh.3025

29. Palmeira VA, Costa LB, Perez LG, Ribeiro VT, Lanza K, Silva ACSE. Do we have enough evidence to use chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine as a public health panacea for COVID-19? Clinics. 2020;75:e1928. https://doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2020/e1928

30. Rodríguez-Morales AJ. Deep impact of COVID-19 in the healthcare of Latin America: the case of Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2020;24(2):93-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2020.04.005

31. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia e Insumos Estratégicos. Departamento de Assistência Farmacêutica e Insumos Estratégicos. Nota Informativa nº6/2020-DAF/SCTIE/MS. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2020.

32. Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia (SBI). Informe n° 16 da Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia sobre: atualização sobre a Hidroxicloroquina no tratamento precoce da COVID-19. Available from: https://infectologia.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/atualizacao-sobre-a-hidroxicloroquina-no-tratamento-precoce-da-covid-19.pdf

33. Cavalcanti AB, Zampieri FG, Rosa RG, Azevedo LCP, Veiga VC, Avezum A, et al. Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I Investigators. Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:2041-52. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2019014

34. Chaccour C, Hammann F, Ramón-García S, Rabinovich NR. Ivermectin and COVID-19: Keeping Rigor in Times of Urgency. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;102(6):1156-7. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0271

35. Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(5):327-47. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2015.37

36. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929-36. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001191

37. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Coronavírus. O que você precisa saber: como se proteger. Available from: https://coronavirus.saude.gov.br/

38. Governo do Estado de São Paulo. SP contra o novo coronavírus. Saiba como se proteger: vacina. Available from: https://www.saopaulo.sp.gov.br/coronavirus/

39. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). COVID 19, Coronavírus. Available from: http:www.gov.br/anvisa/pt-br/assuntos/paf/coronavirus