Nutritional inadequacy in dietary intake of school athletes

Main Article Content

Jamille Mendonça Reinaldo
Danielle Góes da Silva
Renata Costa Matos
Marinade Macedo Rodrigues Leite
Raquel Simões Mendes-Netto


Introduction: Young athletes have an increased energy demand because of the competitive practice of physical exercise, presenting greater risks of nutritional inadequacies. Objective: To evaluate the dietary intake of school athletes who practice different sports by gender and age. Methods: The sample consisted of 129 adolescents of both genders, who were tennis, swimming, gymnastics (artistic and rhythmic), and judo athletes of sports teams in the city of Aracaju (SE), Brazil. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was applied, which was also supported by a photographic record, to estimate the dietary intake of macro and micronutrients as well as food portions. Results: Among the young athletes analyzed, 41.2% were female with a mean age of 13.54±2.45 years. Regardless of gender, older adolescents had higher energy and macronutrient intakes (p<0.05), but presented similar prevalence of inadequacy in relation to the young. Regarding micronutrients, the comparison between genders showed a higher prevalence of inadequacy among younger girls for vitamin E, calcium and iron. Among boys, only the inadequacy of calcium was significantly higher among the younger athletes. Regardless of gender and age, there was a low intake of dairy products and vegetables and a high consumption of sweets, meats and eggs. Conclusion: The diet of adolescent athletes studied showed inadequacy of macro and micronutrients, especially among the younger athletes. It is essential to develop individual or in group nutritional counseling, so that they may acquire proper eating habits.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Reinaldo, J. M., Silva, D. G. da, Matos, R. C., Leite, M. M. R., & Mendes-Netto, R. S. (2016). Nutritional inadequacy in dietary intake of school athletes. ABCS Health Sciences, 41(3).
Original Articles


World Health Organization (WHO). Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva: WHO; 1995.

World Health Organization. Nutrition in adolescence: issues and challenges for the health sector – issues in adolescent health and development. Disponível em: Acesso em: 19 jan. 2015.

Ganley T, Sherman C. Exercise and children’s health: a little counseling can pay lasting dividends. Phys Sports Med. 2000;28(2):85-92.

Papadopoulou SK, Papadopoulou SD, Gallos GK. Macro and micro-nutrient intake of adolescent Greek female volleyball players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol. 2002;12(1):73-80.

American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada; American College of Sports Medicine, Rodriguez NR, Di Marco NM, Langley S. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):709-31.

Couto PG, Bertuzzi R, de Souza CC, Lima HM, Kiss MA, de-Oliveira FR, et al. High Carbohydrate Diet Induces Faster Final Sprint and Overall 10,000-m Times of Young Runners. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2015;27(3):355-63.

Burke LM, Slater G, Broad EM, Haukka J, Modulon S, Hopkins WG. Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite Australian athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13(4):521-38.

Dwyer J, Eisenberg A, Prelack K, Song WO, Sonneville K, Ziegler P. Eating attitudes and food intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters: a cross sectional study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9(1):53.

Daneshvar P, Hariri M, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Darvishi L, Iraj B, et al. Dietary behaviors and nutritional assessment of young male isfahani wrestlers. Int J Prev Med. 2013;4(Suppl 1):S48-52.

Iglesias-Gutiérrez E, García-Rovés PM, García A, Patterson AM. Food preferences do not influence adolescent highlevel athletes’ dietary intake. Appetite. 2008;50(2-3):536-43.

Slater B, Philippi ST, Marchioni DM, Fisberg RM. Validação de Questionário de Frequência Alimentar – QFA: considerações metodológicas. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2003;6(3):200-8.

Zabotto CB, Vianna RPT, Gil MF. Registro fotográfico para inquéritos dietéticos: utensílios e porções. Goiânia: UFG; 1996.

Sales RL, Costa NMB, Silva MMS. Avaliando o consumo alimentar por fotos. [CD-ROM]. Viçosa: UFV; 2004.

Lopez RPS, Botelho RBA. Álbum fotográfico de porções alimentares. São Paulo: Metha; 2008.

Vitolo MR. Nutrição: da gestação ao envelhecimento. Rio de Janeiro: Rubio; 2008.

Colucci ACA, Philippi ST, Slater B. Desenvolvimento de um questionário de frequência alimentar para avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças de 2 a 5 anos de idade. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2004;7(4):393-401.

O Software Virtual Nutri Plus. Virtual NutriPlus. Versão 2.0. Disponível em: Acesso em: 21 jan. 2016

Burke LM, Hawley JA, Wong SH, Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrates for training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S17-27.

Phillips SM, Van Loon LJ. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S29-38.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids (macronutrients). Washington: The National Academies Press; 2005. Disponível em: Acesso em: 12 maio 2016.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington: National Academies Press; 1998.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington: National Academy Press; 2000.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington: The National Academies Press, 2011.

National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances. 10 ed. Washington: National Academy Press; 1989.

Ryan M. Complete guide to sports nutrition. Boulder: Velopress; 1999.

Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes: applications in dietary assessment. Washington: National Academy Press; 2000.

Philippi ST, Latterza AR, Cruz ATR, Ribeiro LC. Pirâmide Alimentar Adaptada: guiapara escolha dos alimentos. Rev Nutr. 1999;12(1):65-80.

Martínez S, Pasquarelli BN, Romaguera D, Arasa C, Tauler P, Aguiló A. Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional profile of young amateur swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(4):1126-33.

Veiga GV, Da Costa RS, Araújo MC, Souza AM, Bezerra IN, Barbosa FS, et al. Inadequação do consumo de nutrientes entre adolescentes brasileiros. Rev Saúde Pública. 2013;47(Suppl 1):S212-21.

Sousa EF, Da Costa TH, Nogueira JA, Vivaldi LJ. Assessment of nutrient and water intake among adolescents from sports federations in the Federal District, Brazil. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(6):1275-83.

Artioli GG, Gualano B, Franchini E, Scagliusi FB, Takesian M, Fuchs M, et al. Prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rapid weight loss among judo competitors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(3):436-42.

Tipton KD, Wolfe RR. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(1):65-79.

Gallagher ML. Os Nutrientes e seu metabolismo In: Mahan LK, Escott-Strump S. Krause: alimentos, nutrição e dietoterapia. 12 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier; 2010. p.39-143.

Kersten S. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. EMBO Rep. 2001;2(4):282-6.

Juzwiak CR, Amancio OMS, Vitalle MSS, Pinheiro MM, Szejnfeld VL. Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(11):1209-17.

Croll JK, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Wall M, Perry C, Harnack L. Adolescents involved in weight-related and power team sports have better eating patterns and nutrient intakes than non-sportinvolved adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(5):709-17.

Leitão MB, Lazzoli JK, Oliveira MAB, Nóbrega ACL, Silveira GG, Carvalho T, et al. Posicionamento oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte: atividade física e saúde na mulher. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2000;6(6):215-20.

Beard J, Tobin B. Iron Status and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(Suppl 2):594S-7S.