Consumption of ultra-processed foods and screen exposure of preschoolers living in a region of high social vulnerability in São Paulo, Brazil

Main Article Content

Lidiany do Nascimento Leite
Bruna da Silva Damaceno
Amanda Forster Lopes

Abstract

Introduction: There is a worldwide increase in the consumption of ultra-processed foods, including among preschoolers. The screen exposure time demands attention to the consequences of this habit. Studies on the consumption of ultra-processed and the screen exposure time are scarce in the literature. Objective: To analyze the frequency of consumption of soft drinks, industrialized juice, sweets, and fast foods and the screen exposure time of preschoolers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 218 children (mean age 2.5±0.9 years), attending a Non-Governmental Organization, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected using a semi-structured form filled out by the person responsible for the preschoolers. Social and environmental data, food frequency consumption, and exposure to screens were systematized to perform statistical analyses. Results: More than 30.0% of children consume sugar-sweetened beverages more than once a week, 35.8% consume sweets daily and 42.7% consume fast foods monthly. Half of the preschoolers are exposed to distractions at mealtime and 70.0% have a contact for more than an hour/day. Screen exposure time was significantly related (p<0.0001) to children's age, consumption of soft drinks, and frozen foods. Conclusion: Among preschoolers, there is a high exposure to ultra-processed foods and screens, the latter associated with the consumption of soft drinks and frozen foods. This information reinforces the need for careful look and actions directed at families with preschoolers and residents of socially vulnerable regions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Leite, L. do N., Damaceno, B. da S., & Lopes, A. F. (2022). Consumption of ultra-processed foods and screen exposure of preschoolers living in a region of high social vulnerability in São Paulo, Brazil. ABCS Health Sciences, 47, e022217. https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.2020129.1584
Section
Original Articles

References

1. World Health Organization (WHO). Ultra-processed food and drink products in Latin America: Trends, impact on obesity, policy implications. Washington: WHO, 2015.

2. Wells JC, Sawaya AL, Wibaek R, Mwangome M, Poullas MS, Yajnik CS, et al. The double burden of malnutrition: aetiological pathways and consequences for health. Lancet. 2020;395(10217):75-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32472-9

3. World Health Organization (WHO). The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review. Geneva: WHO, 2002.

4. Monteiro CA, Levy RB, Claro RM, Castro IRR, Cannon G. Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: Evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(1):5-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980010003241

5. Anastácio COA, Oliveira JM, Moraes MM, Damião JJ, Castro IRR. Perfil nutricional de alimentos ultraprocessados consumidos por crianças no Rio de Janeiro. Rev Saude Publica. 2020;54:89. https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054001752

6. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Departamento de Promoção à Saúde. Guia alimentar para crianças brasileiras menores de 2 anos. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2019.

7. Jaime PC, Prado RR, Malta DC. Influência familiar no consumo de bebidas açucaradas em crianças menores de dois anos. Rev Saude Publica. 2017;51(Supl 1):13s. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1518-8787.2017051000038

8. Rossi CE, Albernaz DO, Vasconcelos FAG, Assis MAA, Di Pietro PF. Influência da televisão no consumo alimentar e na obesidade em crianças e adolescentes: uma revisão sistemática. Rev Nutr. 2010;23(4):607-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732010000400011

9. Martines RM, Machado PP, Neri DA, Levy RB, Rauber F. Association between watching TV whilst eating and children's consumption of ultraprocessed foods in United Kingdom. Matern Child Nutr. 2019;15(4):e12819. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12819

10. Lucena JMS, Cheng LA, Cavalcante TLM, Silva VA, Farias Júnior JC. Prevalência de tempo excessivo de tela e fatores associados em adolescentes. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2015;33(4):407-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rpped.2015.04.001

11. Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP). Manual de orientação: grupo de trabalho saúde na era digital (2019-2021). Available from: https://portaldeboaspraticas.iff.fiocruz.br/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/22246c-ManOrient_-__MenosTelas__MaisSaude.pdf.

12. Bogea EG, Martins MLB, Carvalho WRC, Arruda SPM, França AKTC, Silva AAM. Eating patterns among children aged 13 to 35 months nd association with maternal characteristics. Cad Saude Publica. 2019;35(4):e00072618. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311x00072618

13. Souza MS, Vaz JS, Martins-Silva T, Bomfim RA, Cascaes AM. Ultra-processed foods and early childhood caries in 0-3-year-olds enrolled at Primary Healthcare Centers in Southern Brazil. Public Health Nutr. 2020;1-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002839

14. Marçal GM, Mendes MME, Fragoso MGM, Florêncio TMMT, Bueno NB, Clemente APG. Association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and the practice of breastfeeding in children under 2 years of age who are beneficiaries of the conditional cash transfer programme, Bolsa Família. Public Health Nutr. 2020;1-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898002000244X

15. Costa CS, Del-Ponte B, Assunção MCF, Santos IS. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence: A systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(1):148-59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001331

16. Larqué E, Labayen I, Flodmark CE, Lissau I, Czernin S, Moreno LA, et al. From conception to infancy - early risk factors for childhood obesity. Nature Rev Endocrinol. 2019;15(8):456-78. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41574-019-0219-1

17. Colucci ACA, Philippi ST, Slater B. Desenvolvimento de um questionário de frequência alimentar para avaliação do consumo alimentar de crianças de 2 a 5 anos de idade. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2004;7(4):393-401. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000400003

18. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Atenção Básica. Orientações para avaliação de marcadores de consumo alimentar na atenção básica. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2015.

19. Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde (OPAS). Organização Mundial da Saúde Brasil. (OMS). Para crescerem saudáveis, crianças precisam passar menos tempo sentadas e mais tempo brincando Available from: https://www.paho.org/bra/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5919:para-crescerem-saudaveis-criancas-precisam-passar-menos-tempo-sentadas-e-mais-tempo-brincando&Itemid=839.

20. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Departamento de Promoção à Saúde. Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. 2 ed. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014.

21. Giesta JM, Zoche E, Corrêa RS, Bosa VL. Fatores associados à introdução precoce de alimentos ultraprocessados na alimentação de crianças menores de dois anos. Cienc Saude Coletiva. 2019;24(7):2387-97. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018247.24162017

22. Lopes WC, Pinho L, Caldeira AP, Lessa AC. Consumption of ultra-processed foods by children under 24 months of age and associated factors. Rev Paul Pediatr 2020;38:e2018277. https://doi.org/10.1590/1984-0462/2020/38/2018277

23. Karnopp EVN, Vaz JS, Schafer AA, Muniz LC, Souza RLV, Santos I, et al. Food consumption of children younger than 6 years according to the degree of food processing. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017;93(1):70-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2016.04.007

24. Costa CS, Del-Ponte B, Assunção MCF, Santos IS. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and body fat during childhood and adolescence: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2017;21(1):148-59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001331

25. Beserra JB, Soares NIS, Marreiros CS, Martins MCC, Freitas BJS, Santos MM, Frota KMG. Do children and adolescents who consume ultra-processed foods have a worse lipid profile? A systematic review. Cienc Saude Coletiva. 2020;25(12):4979-89. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320202512.29542018

26. Bujtor M, Turner AI, Torres SJ, Esteban-Gonzalo L, Pariante CM, Borsini A. Associations of dietary intake on biological markers of inflammation in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):356. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020356

27. Aguayo-Patrón SV, de la Barca AMC. Old Fashioned vs. Ultra-Processed-Based Current Diets: Possible Implication in the Increased Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Childhood. Foods. 2017;6(11):100. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6110100

28. Relvas GRB, Buccini GS, Venancio SI. Ultra-processed food consumption among infants in primary health care in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2019;95(5):584-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2018.05.004

29. Brasil. Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social (MDS). Câmara Interministerial de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional. Mapeamento dos Desertos Alimentares no Brasil. Brasília: MDS, 2018.

30. Instituto Brasileiro de Defesa do Consumidor (IBDEC). Alimentando Políticas. Desertos alimentares: encontrar alimentos saudáveis pode ser tão difícil quanto descobrir um oásis no Saara. Available from: https://alimentandopoliticas.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Desertos-Alimentares.pdf.

31. Nwankwo F, Shin D, Al-Habaibeh A, Massoud H. Evaluation of Children’s Screen Viewing Time and Parental Role in Household Context. Glob Pediatr Health. 2019;6:2333794X19878062. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X19878062

32. Miguel-Berges ML, Santaliestra-Pasias AM, Mouratidou T, Miguel-Etayo P, Androutsos O, Craemer M, et al. Combined longitudinal effect of physical activity and screen time on food and beverage consumption in European Preschool Children: the toybox-study. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):1048. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051048

33. Avery A, Anderson C, McCullough F. Associations between children’s diet quality and watching television during the meal or snack consumption: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;13(4):e12428. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12428

34. Maia EG, Costa BVL, Coelho FS, Guimarães JS, Fortaleza RG, Claro RM. Análise da publicidade televisiva de alimentos no contexto das recomendações do guia alimentar para a população brasileira. Cad Saude Publica. 2017;33(4):e00209115. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00209115

35. Dalton MA, Longacre MR, Drake KM, Cleveland LP, Harris JL, Hendricks K, et al. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children. Saude Publica Nutr. 2017;20(9):1548-56. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017000520

36. Leite FHM, Mais LM, Ricardo CZ, Andrade GC, Guimarães JS, Claro RM, et al. Nutritional quality of foods and nonalcoholic beverages advertised on Brazilian free-to-air television: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):385. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08527-6

37. Longo-Silva G, Silveira JAC, Menezes RCE, Toloni MHA. Age at introduction of ultra-processed food among preschool children attending day-care centers. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017;93(5):508-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2016.11.015

38. Jusiene R, Urbonas V, Laurinaityte I, Rakickiene L, Breidokiene R, Kuzminskaite M, et al. Screen use during meals among young children: the exploration of associated variables. Medicina (Kaunas) 2019;55(10):688. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100688