Viability of the random pattern dorsal skin flap in mice submitted to photobiomodulation and therapeutic ultrasound

Main Article Content

Laís Coan Fonanela
Jaquelini Betta Canever
Aderbal Silva Aguiar Júnior
Rafael Inácio Barbosa
Marisa de Cássia Registro Fonseca
Heloyse Uliam Kuriki
Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves
Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

Abstract

Introduction: The skin flap is a surgical technique widely used in clinical practice and generally presents postoperative complications. Therefore, elucidating interventions that assist in tissue conservation is essential. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) are non-invasive alternatives for assisting tissue repair, however, there is no consensus on the parameters used. Objective: To describe the effectiveness of the different parameters of PBM and TUS in the viability of the dorsal random pattern skin flap in mice. Methods: Fifty-five Swiss mice were used, distributed in eleven groups. The animals were submitted to surgical technique including revascularization of the area limited through a plastic barrier (polyester/polyethylene) with the same dimension as the flap. PBM or TUS was applied for five consecutive days. Photographic and thermographic recordings were performed with Cyber-Shot DSC-P72 and FlirC2 cameras and analyzed using the ImageJ® and FLIR Tools software, respectively. In the statistical analysis, the data were submitted to the GraphPad Prism® 8.0 software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA Two-way) and Tukey's post-test was performed, considering 5% significance level. Results: Groups 5 (PBM 830 nm; 10 J/cm²) and 6 (TUS 3 MHz; 0.4 W/cm²) showed percentages of viable tissue significantly higher on the third and fifth day of the experiment, when compared to the other groups. The temperature decreased significantly in group 1 when compared to the others in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The continuous TUS at 3 MHz and PBM 830 nm were more effective in improving the viability of the dorsal random pattern skin flap in mice.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Fonanela, L. C., Canever, J. B., Aguiar Júnior, A. S., Barbosa, R. I., Fonseca, M. de C. R., Kuriki, H. U., Neves, L. M. S. das, & Marcolino, A. M. (2022). Viability of the random pattern dorsal skin flap in mice submitted to photobiomodulation and therapeutic ultrasound. ABCS Health Sciences, 47, e022227. https://doi.org/10.7322/abcshs.2021013.2122
Section
Original Articles

References

1. Ferreira LM. Manual de cirurgia plástica. São Paulo: Atheneu,1995.

2. Enshaei A, Masoudi N. Survey of early complications of primary skin graft and secondary skin graft (delayed) surgery after resection of burn waste in hospitalized burn patients. Glob J Health Sci. 2014;6(7):98-102. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v6n7p98

3. Lucas JB. The physiology and biomechanics of skin flaps. Facial Plast Sur Clin North Am. 2017;25(3):303-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2017.03.003

4. Emsen IM. The effect of ultrasound on flap survival: an experimental study in rats. Burns. 2007;33(3):369-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2006.08.007

5. Freitas AD, Padrini Júnior AG, Tavares KE, Lima LAA. Retalhos antebraquiais pediculados para cobertura dos defeitos cutâneos da mão. Rev Bras Ortop. 1993;28(4):204-8.

6. Kubota J. Effects of diode laser therapy on blood flow in axial pattern flaps in the rat model. Lasers Med Sci. 2002;17(3):146-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s101030200024

7. Neves LMS, Marcolino AM, Prado RP, Thomazini JA. Laser 830nm na viabilidade do retalho cutâneo de ratos submetidos à nicotina. Acta Ortop Bras. 2011;19(6):342-5. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-78522011000600004

8. Neves LMS, Leite GPMF, Marcolino AM, Pinfildi CE, Garcia SB, Araújo JE, et al. Laser Photobiomodulation (830 and 660 Nm) in Mast Cells, VEGF, FGF, and CD34 of the musculocutaneous flap in rats submitted to nicotine. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32(2):335-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2118-1

9. Yadav A, Gupta A. Noninvasive red and near-infrared wavelength-induced photobiomodulation: promoting impaired cutaneous wound healing. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2017;33(1):4-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12282

10. Freitas LF, Hamblin MR. Proposed mechanisms of photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron. 2016;22(3):7000417. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2016.2561201

11. Guirro ECO, Montebelo MIL, Bortot BA, Torres MACB, Polacow MLO. Effect of Laser (670 Nm) on healing of wounds covered with occlusive dressing: a histologic and biomechanical analysis. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010;28(5)629-34. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2008.2387

12. Fortuna T, Gonzalez AC, Sá MF, Andrade ZA, Reis SRA, Medrado ARAP. Effect of 670 Nm laser photobiomodulation on vascular density and fibroplasia in late stages of tissue repair. Int Wound J. 2018;15(2)274-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.12861

13. Melo VA, Anjos DCS, Albuquerque Júnior R, Melo DB, Carvalho FUR. Effect of low level laser on sutured wound healing in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2011;26(2):129-34. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502011000200010

14. Taşkan I, Ozyazgan I, Tercan M, Kardaş HY, Balkanli S, Saraymen R, et al. A comparative study of the effect of ultrasound and electrostimulation on wound healing in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100(4)966-72. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006534-199709001-00020

15. Chen YC, Wang PR, Lai TJ, Lu LH, Dai LW, Wang CH. Using therapeutic ultrasound to promote irritated skin recovery after surfactant-induced barrier disruption. Ultrasonics. 2019;91:206-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2018.08.007

16. Carrer V, Setti JAP, Veronez DL, Moser AD. Ultra-som terapêutico contínuo no processo de cicatrização na pele de ratos. Fisioter Mov. 2015;28(4):751-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-5150.028.004.AO12

17. Wakabayashi N, Sakai A, Takada H, Hoshi T, Saco H, Ichinose S, et al. Noncontact phased-array ultrasound facilitates acute wound healing in mice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020;145(2):348e-59. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006481

18. Matthews MJ, Stretanski MF. Ultrasound Therapy. StatPearls, 2020.

19. Pouremadi N, Motaghi A, Safdari R, Zarean P, Rashad A, Zarean P, et al. Clinical outcomes of low-level laser therapy in management of advanced implant surgery complications: a comparative clinical study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2019;20(1):78-82.

20. Kami T, Yoshimura Y, Nakajima T, Ohshiro T, Fujino T. Effects of low-power diode lasers on flap survival. Anna Plast Surg. 1985;14(3):278-83. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000637-198503000-00013

21. Pinfildi CE, Liebano RE, Hochman BS, Ferreira LM. Helium-neon laser in viability of random skin flap in rats. Lasers Surge Med. 2005;37(1):74-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20190

22. Prado R, Neves L, Marcolino A, Ribeiro T, Pinfildi C, Ferreira L, et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy on malondialdehyde concentration in random cutaneous flap viability. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010;28(3):379-84. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2009.2535

23. Souza TR, Souza AK, Garcia SB, Neves LMS, Barbosa RI, Guirro RRJ, et al. Photobiomodulation increases viability in full-thickness grafts in rats submitted to nicotine. Lasers Surg Med. 2020;52(5):449-55. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23155

24. Kubota J. Defocused diode laser therapy (830 Nm) in the treatment of unresponsive skin ulcers: a preliminary trial. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2004;6(2):96-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/14764170410014983

25. Calderhead RG, Kim WS, Ohshiro T, Trelles MA, Vasily DB. Adjunctive 830 nm light-emitting diode therapy can improve the results following aesthetic procedures. Laser Ther. 2015;24(4):277-89. https://doi.org/10.5978/islsm.15-OR-17

26. Kim WS, Calderhead RG. Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?. Laser Ther. 2011;20(3):205-15. https://doi.org/10.5978/islsm.20.205

27. Hersant B, SidAhmed-Mezi M, Bosc R, Meningaud JP. Current indications of low-level laser therapy in plastic surgery: a review. Photomed Laser Surg. 2015;33(5):283-97. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2014.3822

28. Gonçalves AC, Barbieri CH, Mazzer N, Garcia SB, Thomazini JA. Can Therapeutic Ultrasound Influence the Integration of Skin Grafts?. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2007;33(9):1406-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.04.002

29. Kitchen SS, Partridge CJ. A review of therapeutic ultrasound: I. Background, physiological effects and hazards. Physiotherapy. 1990;76:593.

30. Dyson M. Mecanisms Involved in therapeutic ultra sound. Physioterapy. 1987;73(3):116-30.

31. ter Haar G. Therapeutic ultrasound. Eur J Ultrasound. 1999;9(1):3-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0929-8266(99)00013-0

32. Yücel S, Günay GK, Ünverdi ÖF. Effects of ultrasound-assisted preconditioning on critically ischemic skin flaps: an experimental study. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2020;46(3):660-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2019.12.009

33. Gostishchev VK, Baĭchorov EK, Berchenko GN. Effect of low-frequency ultrasound on the course of the wound process. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1984;133(10):110-3.

34. Belcik JT, Davidson BP, Xie A, Wu MD, Yadava M, Qi Y, et al. Augmentation of muscle blood flow by ultrasound cavitation is mediated by atp and purinergic signaling. Circulation. 2017;135(13):1240-52. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024826

35. Planel E, Richter KE, Nolan CE, Finley JE, Liu L, Wen Y, et al. Anesthesia leads to tau hyperphosphorylation through inhibition of phosphatase activity by hypothermia. J Neurosci. 2007;27(12):3090-7. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4854-06.2007

36. Matsukawa T, Sessler DI, Sessler AM, Schroeder M, Ozaki M, Kurz A, et al. Heat flow and distribution during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1995;82(3):662-73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199503000-00008

37. Fiebig K, Jourdan T, Kock MH, Merle R, Thöne-Reineke C. Evaluation of Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement in Adult Male NMRI Nude Mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2018;57(6)715-24. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-17-000137

38. Stadler I, Lanzafame RJ, Oskoui P, Zhang RY, Coleman J, Whittaker M. Alteration of skin temperature during low-level laser irradiation at 830 Nm in a mouse model. Photomed Laser Surg. 2004;22(3):227-31. https://doi.org/10.1089/1549541041438560